Mdadm: Raid Active Partition

Oct 22, 2007

The server is currently live on /dev/sda and it was installed w/o raid. Now i have added a second HDD in, how do i RAID it?

It's Ubuntu 6.06

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Raid 1 Restore With Mdadm

Jun 3, 2008

how do i restore a raid 1 if one disk fails? or to be more specific if a disk is unplugged while the machine is still running xD. The madman of my boss wants to see what happens... well the raid responded and the system is still functioning with one disk... but how do i put a new one? just plug it and that's it?

my OS is centos 5.1 and i have mdadm as a raid tool

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Raid Disk Partition Errorc :: Warning: Invalid Flag 0x0000 Of Partition Table

Mar 16, 2008

I have a disk in raid, but it seems raid is not working correctly. I took it out, and plug into another server without raid. However, fdisk shows error

Quote:

#fdisk /dev/sdb
device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel. Changes will remain in memory only,
until you decide to write them. After that, of course, the previous
content won't be recoverable.

The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 20023.
There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
and could in certain setups cause problems with:
1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)

2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
(e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

Command (m for help):

Should I correct the partition table now, or should I put it in another raid for checking?

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Issue Mounting RAID Perc Partition

May 19, 2007

We had a problem on one of our servers and it was running RAID 1 with two 300GB SAS.

When I boot the server I have the following issue,
PXE:E61: Media test failure, check cable

I searched through all the net but couldnt find a solution that helped me.

Now I took one of the HDDs out and installed as slave on another Linux server. One of the HDDs says when I do /sbin/fdisk -l,
no partition table for /dev/sdb (something like that)

The other HDD have all the partition table,

/dev/sdb1
/dev/sdb2
/dev/sdb3
/dev/sdb4
/dev/sdb5

The big partition (probably when I have my data) is under /dev/sdb2, although when I try to mount that partition I get the following error,

mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on /dev/sdb2
missing codepage or other error
In some cases useful is found in syslog - try
dmesg | tail or so

Is any command specific for mounting RAID partitions or the HD is gone ?

I really need the data that are inside it.

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400GB Hard Disk Drives In RAID 0, RAID 5 And RAID 10 Arrays: Performance Analysis

Mar 7, 2007

Quote:

Today we are going to conduct a detailed study of RAIDability of contemporary 400GB hard drives on a new level. We will take two "professional" drives from Seagate and Western Digital and four ordinary "desktop" drives for our investigation. The detailed performance analysis and some useful hints on building RAID arrays are in our new detailed article.

[url]

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Resize Partition/create New Partition/lvm

Jul 4, 2008

i have centos 5 server i want install xen on it on my server is just one partion how may i resize this partion( without format partion/with put delete data) and then create lvm partion?

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Hardware RAID: Is Motherboard RAID As Good As A Dedicated PCI-E Card

Mar 24, 2008

Is Motherboard RAID as good as a dedicated PCI-E card? I am guessing a dedicated card is the best option, though costs more.

We are looking at buying a barebones server from Supermicro. It features an onboard RAID controller which supports RAID 0, 1, 5 & 10 - but for some strange reason it will only support RAID 5 if you use Windows. Here is a link to the page detailing the RAID features.

[url]

We are going to be running Linux, CentOS 5.1, so we will only have the choice of RAID 0, 1 or 10. This isn't an issue, as having RAID 10 on 4x SAS (15k) drives will be fine for speed and stability. What is an issue is would this RAID controller be as fast or reliable compared to a dedicated PCI-E card? If it can only use RAID 5 in windows, does that suggest this controller is too reliant on software? It would be a nightmare to suffer downtime and data loss because the controller couldn't hack it during a drive failure, or one day it decided to bugger up the array when rebooting.

So that leads me to looking at this card, this looks very good for what we need. Are adaptec a reliable brand? I've seen it advertised for 200, which is a good price.

[url]

This card features RAID 5 and 6, would RAID 6 be better than RAID 10 for redundancy, or is it too slow to bother with? Also it seems to have a battery module available for it, what does this achieve? Cos surely if the power dies the hard drives and motherboard can't run off this little battery, or does it just help the controller stay alive long enough with some hard drive information in its memory if the power goes out during a rebuild?

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Any Experiences With Software-Raid 5 Vs Hardware-Raid 5? (e.g. Hetzner EQ9)

Sep 17, 2009

I could try the Software-RAID 5 of the EQ9 Server of Hetzner.

Does anyone here has experiences, how fast a hardware raid 5 compared against the software-Raid 5 is?

The i7-975 should have enough power to compute the redundnacy on the fly, so there would be a minimal impact on performance. But I have no idea.

I want to run the server under ubuntu 8.04 LTS x64.

On it a vitualisation like VMware the IO-Load could get really high.

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Whats The Best For Server With SATA Raid 1 And SCSI Raid 10

Jan 14, 2008

So I've just got a server with 2xSATA raid 1 (OS, cpanel and everything in here) and 4xSCSI raid 10 (clean).

Which one do you guys think will give the best performance:

1. Move mysql only to 4xSCSI raid 10
2. Move mysql and home folder to 4xSCSI raid 10

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How To Setup Software RAID-10 On Linux With /boot On RAID-1

Jul 8, 2007

I am in a somewhat complicated situation... I wanted to order a custom server with hardware 3Ware RAID controller but after over a month of waiting I was told the HW RAID controller, as well as any other 3Ware controller they tried, does not work with the motherboard used in the server from Fujitsu-Siemens and that they simply got a reply from FS that the controller is not certified to work with their motherboard.

So although I'd prefer a HW raid, I am forced to either choose a different webhost or setup a software RAID. The problem is, I haven't done that before and am somewhat moderately...scared

I have read a lot of the info about SW RAID on Linux that I could find through Google but there are some questions unanswered still. So I thought that perhaps some of the more knowledgeable WHT members could help me with this problem...

The server specs will be:

Core2Duo E6600 (2.4Ghz), 2GB RAM, 6-8x* 250GB SATA II HDDs, CentOS 4.4 or SuSe, DirectAdmin

* I prefer 8 HDDs (or actually 9) over 6 but I am not sure if their server chassis can hold that many HDDs, I am awaiting answer from them. They don't have any other drives beside the 250GB ones so I am limited to those.

The preferred SW RAID setup is to have everything in RAID 10, except for the /boot partition which has to be on RAID-1 or no RAID I believe, plus one drive as hot spare (that would be the 9th drive). I am quite sure they will not do the setup for me but will give me access to KVM over IP and a Linux image preinstalled on the first HDD so that I'll have a functional system that needs to be upgraded to RAID-10.

How do I do that? The big problem I see is that LILO or GRUB can't boot from a software RAID-5/10 so I will have to mount the /boot partition elsewhere. It's probably terribly simple...if you have done it before which I have not. I have read some articles on how to setup a RAID-5/10 with mdadm (e.g. [url] ) but they usually do not talk about how to setup the boot partition. Should it be setup as a small sized (100-200MB) RAID-1 partition spread over all of the drives in the otherwise RAID-10 array?

What about swap? Should I create a 4-8GB (I plan to upgrade the server RAM to 4GB in near future) RAID-1 swap partition on each of the disks or swap to a file on the main RAID-10 partitions. The second sounds simpler but what about performance? Is swapping to a file on RAID-10 array a bad idea, performance wise?

Is it possible to grow a RAID-10 array in a way similar to growing a RAID-5 array with mdadm (using two extra drives instead of one of course)? mdadm doesn't actually even mention RAID-10 despite it does support it without having to create RAID-0 on top of RAID-1 pairs if the support is in kernel, from what I know.

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Worth Having RAID 1 If Raid Arrays Break

Feb 25, 2009

How often do RAID arrays break? Is it worth having RAID if a servers hard drive goes down? I was thinking it may just be a better option to just have a backup drive mounted to my system and in the even of a system failure just pop in a new hard drive, reload the OS, and then reload all my backups?

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Software Raid 1 - Rather Slow During Raid 1 Recovery

May 20, 2009

I have a new server and it is rather slow during raid 1 recovery after system installed

CPU: Intel Core2Duo E5200 Dual Core, 2.5Ghz, 2MB Cache, 800Mhz FSB
Memory: 4GB DDR RAM
Hard Disk 1: 500GB SATA-2 16MB Cache
Hard Disk 2: 500GB SATA-2 16MB Cache

root@server [~]# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid1]
md0 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
256896 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md1 : active raid1 sdb2[1] sda2[0]
2096384 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md2 : active raid1 sdb4[2] sda4[0]
480608448 blocks [2/1] [U_]
[=======>.............] recovery = 36.7% (176477376/480608448) finish=1437.6min speed=3445K/sec

the sync speed is just 3.4Mb/second and the total hours needs to be more than 40 hours

Also the server load is very high (nobody uses it)

root@server [~]# top
top - 07:00:14 up 16:55, 1 user, load average: 1.88, 1.41, 1.34
Tasks: 120 total, 1 running, 119 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie
Cpu(s): 0.0%us, 0.2%sy, 0.0%ni, 99.7%id, 0.0%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.2%si, 0.0%st
Mem: 4148632k total, 747768k used, 3400864k free, 17508k buffers
Swap: 5421928k total, 0k used, 5421928k free, 569252k cached

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RAID 5 Vs RAID 10 In Shared Hosting Server

Oct 22, 2009

I am in the process of restructuring the infrastructure on our servers. I am thinking of using either RAID 5 (1 hot spare) vs RAID 10 as my 1U server has 4 HDD tray.

RAID 5 would have better capacity but RAID 10 has better overall performance. Which one do you guys go for a shared hosting server?

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Turn Non Raid Into Raid On Live Server

Dec 23, 2008

Is it possible to turn a non raided setup into Linux software raid, while it is live, and if it's the OS drive? Can you even software raid the OS drive remotely? I've been thinking about doing it for the redundancy (and possible slight performance boost for reads, but doing it more for redundancy). I'm using CentOS.

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Read Raid-disk On Non-raid System

May 22, 2008

I want to take some data from a raid-disk (taken from a raid-1 sstem). Put it into a new system already, but this system doesn't have any raid.

When viewing "fdisk -l", it said /dev/sdb doesn't contain valid partition. Is there anyway I can mount it now? I am on CentOS 4 box

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Status:ACTIVE

Aug 22, 2007

I have a message in queue for about 24 hours and checking the delivery log I found this.

LOG: MAIN
cwd=/usr/local/cpanel/whostmgr/docroot 4 args: exim -v -M 1INUw5-0007VU-DZ
delivering 1INUw5-0007VU-DZ
Connecting to mx.uol.xxx.br [xxx.xxx.com.br]:25 ... connected
SMTP<< 220 starfury20.xxx.com.br ESMTP
SMTP>> EHLO svr01.xx***********
SMTP<< 250-starfury20.xxx.com.br
250-PIPELINING
250-SIZE 20971520
250-VRFY
250-ETRN
250 8BITMIME
SMTP>> MAIL FROM: SIZE=3111
SMTP>> RCPT TO:
SMTP>> DATA
SMTP<< 250 Ok
SMTP<< 450 Client host rejected: cannot find your hostname, [74.86.12.2]
SMTP<< 554 Error: no valid recipients
SMTP>> QUIT

I have checked dnsreport for this domain and found this

WARNING: One or more of your mailservers is claiming to be a host other than what it really is (the SMTP greeting should be a 3-digit code, followed by a space or a dash, then the host name). If your mailserver sends out E-mail using this domain in its EHLO or HELO, your E-mail might get blocked by anti-spam software. This is also a technical violation of RFC821 4.3 (and RFC2821 4.3.1). Note that the hostname given in the SMTP greeting should have an A record pointing back to the same server. Note that this one test may use a cached DNS record.

***********.co claims to be host svr01.xx*********** [but that host is at 74.xx.xx.2 (may be cached), not 74.xx.xxx.13]. <br />

What should i do to correct this error? btw, I host about 100 sites on this server.

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More Than 'max_user_connections' Active Connections

Jun 1, 2007

i am having an website like a webdirectory. BUT i am getting this error after every 5-10 mintues :

Warning: mysql_pconnect() [function.mysql-pconnect]: User USERNAME
has already more than 'max_user_connections' active connections in
/FIELPATH on line 93
Database error: pconnect(localhost,bstitne_netclass, $Password)failed.
MySQL Error)
Session halted.

PLEASE suggest how can i solve this. May be it is an server issue

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More Than 'max_user_connections' Active Connections

Apr 29, 2007

Since moving over to a new server, I have had to reboot my sql server about 5 times a day due to it crashing, and I always get the error:

Warning: mysql_connect() [function.mysql-connect]: User food_user has already more than 'max_user_connections' active connections in /home/food/public_html/includes/functions.php on line 9
Not connected : User food_user has already more than 'max_user_connections' active connections

I dont understand what is causing this...I used the tweaking guide as found on here and my.cnf file looks like this:

[mysqld]
datadir=/var/lib/mysql
socket=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
skip-locking
skip-innodb
query_cache_limit=8M
query_cache_size=256M
query_cache_type=1
max_connections=500
max_user_connections=10
interactive_timeout=20
wait_timeout=20
connect_timeout=6
thread_cache_size=128
key_buffer=16M
join_buffer=1M
max_allowed_packet=16M
table_cache=1024
record_buffer=1M
sort_buffer_size=2M
read_buffer_size=2M
max_connect_errors=10
# Try number of CPU's*2 for thread_concurrency
thread_concurrency=4
myisam_sort_buffer_size=64M
#log-bin
server-id=1

[mysql.server]
user=mysql
basedir=/var/lib

[safe_mysqld]
err-log=/var/log/mysqld.log
pid-file=/var/lib/mysql/mysql.pid
open_files_limit=8192

[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet=16M

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash
#safe-updates

[isamchk]
key_buffer=32M
sort_buffer=32M
read_buffer=16M
write_buffer=16M

[myisamchk]
key_buffer=32M
sort_buffer=32M
read_buffer=16M
write_buffer=16M

Through my WHM, i went to "Show Mysql Processes" and heres what it displays www.brinked.com/mysql.txt

This problem has also occured on another one of my websites on the same server that makes use of mysql. Am I doing something wrong here? I dont think its the script because it ran for years on another server just fine.

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Mod_rewrite Active But Not Reading Htaccess

Jan 18, 2007

although mod_rewrite is active but htaccess i not read why?

and how can i know mod_rewrite is active or not?

(Plesk 7.x)

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Active Directory Home Folder

Jul 31, 2009

I am using Windows Server 2003 SP2 Standard Edition. I have installed Active directory and created users and their home folders. Everything works fine except a problem.

When a user from the domain uses the UNC to connect to the server, it shows the shared folder. The user can view and change all other users files, home directory etc. The user can browse all the folders.

I need it to be setup so that the user can only view his own home folder and files and not others. Also when using UNC to browse the server, I want an administrator authentication even if the user is from the same domain.

Here are my current permissions.

NTFS Root folder permission
=================================
Administrators - Full Control
CREATOR OWNER - Special Permission
System - Full Control
Domain Users - Read & Execute, List Contents, Read, Special Permissions.

Share permission of root folder
================================
Domain Users - Read

NTFS Permission for user home folders
=====================================
Created User - Full Control
Administrators - Full Control
CREATOR OWNER - Special Permission
System - Full Control
Domain Users - Read & Execute, List Contents, Read, Special Permissions.

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MySQL Timeout On Active Connections

Oct 21, 2009

unfortunately my server crashes a lot recently. What happens is that some application creates a MySQL connection which hangs and then MySQL gets overloaded and takes the whole server down.

My question:

1. How do I configure MySQL to time out even on active connections ? I.e. after 30 seconds kill the process no matter if it is still active or not. Is that possible ?

2. How do I exclude the root user from that?

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Do You Test Server Before Making It Active

Aug 4, 2009

Let's say you ordered new server,do you make active same moment(install httpd server and all other components)or you running test before like memory and hardware test? If yes,which programs you would recommend to test fully hardware?

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Considering A New Host For Active Forum & WP Site.

Sep 9, 2008

I've been with Bluehost for over three years. I've really not had any big problems with them. But I've learned that people usually don't have problems with hosts unless they actually have a website that has good traffic.

Well, as my main site has grown, I think I'm outgrowing my host.

I have a forum (SMF) with over 1500 members and close to 80K posts. It's got a good core of very active members. Doing well. The main part of the site is on WP platform.

Friday, I try to bring up the forum and POOF! It's not there. Just a blank screen. No error, no nothing. Call support and they have no clue, but the support guy comments out a line in one of my SMF files and the site comes back up. Don't ask me how he knew to comment out that line or anything.

Things go fine for a few days, then yesterday P.M. I start getting "exceeding CPU" errors and then a 500 error. Keep in mind, I've done nothing to my site in these days to cause any of this or any changes to even make me suspect anything.

Called support two times last night and finally was told to submit a ticket to their scripting department. I could see the PHP errors in my CP and I knew it was something wrong on their end, but no one could figure it out. Well, I haven't heard from support but my site's back up today.

I'm just thinking it may be time to consider switching. Not sure I really want to deal with that, but I'm having more errors and glitches with them in the last year.

I know HostGator gets mostly great reviews. Will my experience there be any different though?

I know lots of people here ask for web host suggestions. I could really use some guidance, not just in companies, but the things I need to keep in mind about my site in particular that would help me choose one.

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Change Hostname On An Active Server

Mar 18, 2007

I currently have a server with CentOS 4x and cPanel with approximatley 100 active sites on.

I would like to change the hostname on this box, is this possible without causing any disruption to services on this machine?

Would I be correct in thinking its as simple as modifying /etc/hosts(Or doing it in cPanel) and then reactivating the cPanel License?

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Group Policy For Active Desktop

Nov 14, 2007

I've been trying to set an active desktop of a group of users that log into XP machines to an html webpage. So far I haven't had any luck getting the webpage to appear.

What exactly needs to be done in order for this to work correctly? The primary domain controller is running on windows 200 server.

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3ware RAID Or Software RAID

Mar 24, 2009

MY server configure our drives with RAID-1.

How can I check it my server configure with 3ware or software raid ?

Also please advise me how can I monitor raid configuration that my raid is working fine or no ?

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RAID Or Not To RAID: Trying To Decide On A New Server

Jul 11, 2008

I've been talking to the Planet about trading in my four and a half year old "SuperCeleron" (from the old ServerMatrix days) Celeron 2.4 GHz system for something new. As part of their current promotions, I've configured a system that looks decent:

Xeon 3040, 1 gig of RAM, 2x250GB hard disks, RHEL 5, cPanel+Fantastico, and 10 ips for $162.

Not too bad. I could bump up the ram to 2 gb for, I think, $12 more, which I'm thinking about and wouldn't mind some thoughts on. But, the thing that has me really confused is RAID. I like the idea of doing a RAID 1 setup with those two hard disks. But, the Planet wants $40/month for a RAID controller to do it. I really don't want to go over $200 a month!

Any thoughts on alternative redundancy strategies that might avoid that cost? Software RAID does not seem to be offered by the Planet, unless I can figure out how to do it after installation (is that possible?) Better ideas in general on the server?

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Raid 1 SCSI Or Raid 10 SATA 10k

May 23, 2007

Just curious what your thoughts are on performance:

2 SCSI Drives 10k w/RAID 1

or

4 SATA 10k w/RAID 10

Prices are not too different with 4 drives just being a tad more.

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Software Raid Vs. Hardware Raid

Jun 5, 2007

how well software raid can perform and how it compares to hardware raid. How does software raid actually work and is it worth it?

How should I look at be setting up software raid if I was going to? Would you recommend just to use hardware raid instead?

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RAID 10 Or RAID 5 With Online Backup

Dec 10, 2007

Which do you guys recommend of the following?

4x 73GB 15,000rpm SAS drives in a RAID 10

or

4x 73GB 15,000rpm SAS drives in a RAID 5 w/ online backup

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