Raid 1 Vs Two Physical Drives

Nov 1, 2009

I have number of question relevant to dedi. severs. I dont know to post them seperately or in single thread , sorry to mod for my negligence.

raid 1
If I have two drives ,and take daily backup on second drive

how much average small websites can hold a single machine=
quad xeon 2.3 , 4gb ram, 1 tb drive what you say?

how many websites you ever hosted on single machine?

is it wise to host large number of website on single powerful machine with external backup, or go for number of small dedis.

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400GB Hard Disk Drives In RAID 0, RAID 5 And RAID 10 Arrays: Performance Analysis

Mar 7, 2007


Today we are going to conduct a detailed study of RAIDability of contemporary 400GB hard drives on a new level. We will take two "professional" drives from Seagate and Western Digital and four ordinary "desktop" drives for our investigation. The detailed performance analysis and some useful hints on building RAID arrays are in our new detailed article.


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Dell Drives In A RAID Array With Non-Dell Drives

Sep 14, 2009

I have a couple of Dell 1950s and in one of them, I have 2x Seagate 15K.5s that I purchased through Dell and I also have a spare sitting in my rack in case one goes bad, also from Dell.

I was going to be repurposing one of my other 1950s and was going to get two more 15K.5s for it, but wasn't planning on getting them through Dell (rip off?). This way, could still keep the same spare drive around in case a drive went bad in that system as well.

When I was talking to my Dell rep recently when purchasing another system, their hardware tech said you can't use non-Dell drives with Dell drives in the same RAID array because of the different firmware between them.

Anyone know if it is true? Anyone have any experience with using drives from Dell in conjunction with the same model drives from a third party retailer?

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Two Drives On My RAID 5 Failed

Apr 30, 2007

I have a dell POWER VAULT 725N utilizing a 4 HDD RAID 5 setup.

Server has died and bios error message shows that 2 hard drives had failed. I can not boot to windows.

Data is very crucial, what are my options for data recovery?

I really hope I can recover the data, I doubt that two HDD actually failed at the same time without giving any warnings. I hope its the raid controller.

Would like to hear pointers from the community on how to recover important data from the RAID.

Are there any companies/software that would help in this assuming it is a hdd failure and not a controller issue?

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Raid 5 Vs Raid 10 (4 Drives)

May 10, 2009

I have room for 4 more hard drives on my home server. My original goal was to go raid 10 but I've been thinking, raid 5 can support 4 drives and give more capacity. Which one would have better performance as software (md) raid? I'm thinking raid 10 might actually have bad performance as software raid, vs hardware, compared to raid 5. Would raid 5 with 4 drives be better for my case?

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Does Linux SW Raid Benefit From TLER On WD Drives

Dec 21, 2008

I've just bought myself a linux based NAS for storage/backups at home and a couple of WD Greenpower (Non-RAID edition) HDDs.

For those who don't know what TLER is (Time Limited Error Recovery), without it enabled the HDD does its own error recovery, which may take longer than the acceptable time for a RAID Controller. In which case, the drive is kicked out of the array. With TLER on, the idea is that the drive keeps notifying the controller, or the controller handles the error.

So, my actual question is, does Linux Software RAID benefit from TLER being enabled? Or is it best to let the drive do it's own thing?

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I'm Missing 7 GB Of Ram: Installed Physical Memory 8 GB / Total Physical Memory 1 GB

Apr 4, 2009

I just ordered a server from serverbeach that should have come with 2 GB but I see that this one comes with 8 GB

Unfortunately, I seem to be missing 7 GB of ram.
Installed Physical Memory: 8 GB
Total Physical Memory: 1 GB

Windows 2008 Server Web 32-bit

Now, being a 32-bit system, I should see 3-4 GB of ram right?

Any idea why only 1 GB is available for the OS?


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Do Hosts Use Enterprise Drives Or Desktop Drives

Nov 5, 2009

i want to know if there is a difference between enterprise drives and desktop drives and which ones hosts use

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Physical Ram For VPS

Jun 7, 2008

I have a VPS and it worked well, the problem is if I install huge database which is more than 2 gigs, the VPS will hang because it has no physical ram to handle it. My host told me the only way is to get a dedicated server for a db more than 2 gigs. Dedicated servers have physical ram to deal with such db's.

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VPS And Physical Memory

Nov 1, 2008

I had a 'VPSII' at 1and1 (Windows). The VPS II is advertised as having 256MB, and in Task Manager it would show physical memory as 450MB. When I first questioned this difference I was told the 450 included an 'allowance' for the OS - seemed reasonable.

I just upgraded to a VPSIII - which is advertised as having 512MB. Call me crazy, but I was expecting Task Manager to now report 706MB (450+256), but it only shows 550MB.

I called 1and1 and they said 'that's correct' - we give the smaller VPSs a 'boost' but not the VPSIII - WTF?

Is this anything like standard practice?

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Physical Path

Jan 13, 2007

how can i find out my site physical path

i tried following but blank page

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Hardware RAID: Is Motherboard RAID As Good As A Dedicated PCI-E Card

Mar 24, 2008

Is Motherboard RAID as good as a dedicated PCI-E card? I am guessing a dedicated card is the best option, though costs more.

We are looking at buying a barebones server from Supermicro. It features an onboard RAID controller which supports RAID 0, 1, 5 & 10 - but for some strange reason it will only support RAID 5 if you use Windows. Here is a link to the page detailing the RAID features.


We are going to be running Linux, CentOS 5.1, so we will only have the choice of RAID 0, 1 or 10. This isn't an issue, as having RAID 10 on 4x SAS (15k) drives will be fine for speed and stability. What is an issue is would this RAID controller be as fast or reliable compared to a dedicated PCI-E card? If it can only use RAID 5 in windows, does that suggest this controller is too reliant on software? It would be a nightmare to suffer downtime and data loss because the controller couldn't hack it during a drive failure, or one day it decided to bugger up the array when rebooting.

So that leads me to looking at this card, this looks very good for what we need. Are adaptec a reliable brand? I've seen it advertised for 200, which is a good price.


This card features RAID 5 and 6, would RAID 6 be better than RAID 10 for redundancy, or is it too slow to bother with? Also it seems to have a battery module available for it, what does this achieve? Cos surely if the power dies the hard drives and motherboard can't run off this little battery, or does it just help the controller stay alive long enough with some hard drive information in its memory if the power goes out during a rebuild?

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Physical Memory Running Out

May 14, 2009

recently brought a dedicated server with fasthosts.

Currently my site has

Physical80.31% 84Mb Free (428Mb Total)

Virtual2.99% 1987Mb Free (2048Mb Total)

The physical memory has shot up, do I need to reduce it somehow?

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1U NYC For $50/month With Physical Access

Sep 6, 2009

I live near NYC, and it would be very convenient if I could have physical access to my colo'd server. I don't suppose there is anything in the $50/month range? If not, then I guess any affordable colocation on the East Coast?

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Motherboard That Support 4 Physical CPU

Jan 30, 2008

Is there any economical motherboard CPU which support 4 physical CPU?

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Physical Hack Of My Server

Dec 9, 2007

Physical hack of my server?

My server (cent OS4, plesk 8) was frozen for a day and the NOC had to reboot it, here is the mail I got from my host:

>Your server was frozen, with a kernel panic. Ensure that you check your logs closely to determine how this happened,

After looking at the message log here is the part of the log when the crash happened:
Is this really a kernel panic, I am not sure...

Dec 8 09:05:36 server kernel: input: AT Translated Set 2 keyboard on isa0060/serio0
Dec 8 09:05:37 server hal.hotplug[2701]: DEVPATH is not set
Dec 8 09:05:37 server hal.hotplug[2702]: DEVPATH is not set
Dec 8 09:05:42 server login(pam_unix)[2670]: bad username [ ]
Dec 8 09:05:42 server login[2670]: Authentication started for user
Dec 8 09:05:44 server login[2670]: FAILED LOGIN 1 FROM (null) FOR , Authentication failure
Dec 8 09:05:50 server login(pam_unix)[2670]: authentication failure; logname=LOGIN uid=0 euid=0 tty=tty1 ruser= rhost= user=root
Dec 8 09:05:50 server login[2670]: Authentication started for user root
Dec 8 09:05:53 server login[2670]: FAILED LOGIN 2 FROM (null) FOR root, Authentication failure
Dec 8 09:05:57 server login(pam_unix)[2671]: authentication failure; logname=LOGIN uid=0 euid=0 tty=tty2 ruser= rhost= user=root
Dec 8 09:05:57 server login[2671]: Authentication started for user root
Dec 8 09:05:59 server login[2671]: FAILED LOGIN 1 FROM (null) FOR root, Authentication failure
Dec 8 09:06:00 server shutdown: shutting down for system reboot
Dec 8 09:06:00 server init: Switching to runlevel: 6
^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@ ^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@ ^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@
Dec 9 05:52:36 server syslogd 1.4.1: restart.

It looks to me like if someone has physically connected a keyboard and logged in at the NOC.

I use Iptable to restrict ssh access to my IP each time I connect remotly, so I dont' think a remote connection has been possible.

any idea about this line:
^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@ ^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@ ^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@^@
I think it's just corupted data the was written when the server shutt down.

Also i didn't find any other signes of kernel panic in the logs

Looking at the httpd error log I found this lines before the crash:

[Sat Dec 08 00:44:40 2007] [error] [client] client sent HTTP/1.1 request without hostname (see RFC2616 section 14.23): /
[Sat Dec 08 00:44:40 2007] [error] [client] client sent HTTP/1.1 request without hostname (see RFC2616 section 14.23): /

apparently somone doing server scan. maybe the 2 events are correlated and the server freeze could have been a result of some buffer overflow attack, but i sould be finding some evidences of this on the apache logs?

What direction should I take to investigate a bit further on this server freeze?

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Any Experiences With Software-Raid 5 Vs Hardware-Raid 5? (e.g. Hetzner EQ9)

Sep 17, 2009

I could try the Software-RAID 5 of the EQ9 Server of Hetzner.

Does anyone here has experiences, how fast a hardware raid 5 compared against the software-Raid 5 is?

The i7-975 should have enough power to compute the redundnacy on the fly, so there would be a minimal impact on performance. But I have no idea.

I want to run the server under ubuntu 8.04 LTS x64.

On it a vitualisation like VMware the IO-Load could get really high.

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Whats The Best For Server With SATA Raid 1 And SCSI Raid 10

Jan 14, 2008

So I've just got a server with 2xSATA raid 1 (OS, cpanel and everything in here) and 4xSCSI raid 10 (clean).

Which one do you guys think will give the best performance:

1. Move mysql only to 4xSCSI raid 10
2. Move mysql and home folder to 4xSCSI raid 10

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How To Setup Software RAID-10 On Linux With /boot On RAID-1

Jul 8, 2007

I am in a somewhat complicated situation... I wanted to order a custom server with hardware 3Ware RAID controller but after over a month of waiting I was told the HW RAID controller, as well as any other 3Ware controller they tried, does not work with the motherboard used in the server from Fujitsu-Siemens and that they simply got a reply from FS that the controller is not certified to work with their motherboard.

So although I'd prefer a HW raid, I am forced to either choose a different webhost or setup a software RAID. The problem is, I haven't done that before and am somewhat moderately...scared

I have read a lot of the info about SW RAID on Linux that I could find through Google but there are some questions unanswered still. So I thought that perhaps some of the more knowledgeable WHT members could help me with this problem...

The server specs will be:

Core2Duo E6600 (2.4Ghz), 2GB RAM, 6-8x* 250GB SATA II HDDs, CentOS 4.4 or SuSe, DirectAdmin

* I prefer 8 HDDs (or actually 9) over 6 but I am not sure if their server chassis can hold that many HDDs, I am awaiting answer from them. They don't have any other drives beside the 250GB ones so I am limited to those.

The preferred SW RAID setup is to have everything in RAID 10, except for the /boot partition which has to be on RAID-1 or no RAID I believe, plus one drive as hot spare (that would be the 9th drive). I am quite sure they will not do the setup for me but will give me access to KVM over IP and a Linux image preinstalled on the first HDD so that I'll have a functional system that needs to be upgraded to RAID-10.

How do I do that? The big problem I see is that LILO or GRUB can't boot from a software RAID-5/10 so I will have to mount the /boot partition elsewhere. It's probably terribly simple...if you have done it before which I have not. I have read some articles on how to setup a RAID-5/10 with mdadm (e.g. [url] ) but they usually do not talk about how to setup the boot partition. Should it be setup as a small sized (100-200MB) RAID-1 partition spread over all of the drives in the otherwise RAID-10 array?

What about swap? Should I create a 4-8GB (I plan to upgrade the server RAM to 4GB in near future) RAID-1 swap partition on each of the disks or swap to a file on the main RAID-10 partitions. The second sounds simpler but what about performance? Is swapping to a file on RAID-10 array a bad idea, performance wise?

Is it possible to grow a RAID-10 array in a way similar to growing a RAID-5 array with mdadm (using two extra drives instead of one of course)? mdadm doesn't actually even mention RAID-10 despite it does support it without having to create RAID-0 on top of RAID-1 pairs if the support is in kernel, from what I know.

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Physical Path Of Yahoo Hosting

Jan 14, 2007

what is the physical path of yahoo hosting

i tried this

PHP Code:


but bank page

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Windows 2003 Server - IIS & FTP Up, But No RDP Or Physical Console

Jun 2, 2008

We have a windows 2003 machine that is currently responding properly to all services that it's running (including IIS and FTP), however RDP connections just close right away and the server isn't responding when a local keyboard & monitor is plugged in.

The last thing that I want to do is pull the power out while it's on - any ideas?

I tried a remote shutdown, but the response is:
C:Users>shutdown /r /m HOSTNAME
HOSTNAME: The entered computer name is not valid or remote shutdown is not supported on the target computer. Check the name and then try again or contact your system administrator.(53)

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Supermicro 6015B-3V Detects Only 1 Physical Processor

Jun 8, 2007

I just built a new server using [url]and two Intel xeon 5345 clovertown processors.

When the server boots up the BIOS detects only 1 physical processor with 4 cores and also the OS detects the same.

Couple of things I already tried to solve the problem:
A. Upgraded the BIOS to the latest available release date of 05/30/07

B. I swapped the processors in the motherboard sockets to rule out that one of the processors was not working.

how to troubleshoot.

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Worth Having RAID 1 If Raid Arrays Break

Feb 25, 2009

How often do RAID arrays break? Is it worth having RAID if a servers hard drive goes down? I was thinking it may just be a better option to just have a backup drive mounted to my system and in the even of a system failure just pop in a new hard drive, reload the OS, and then reload all my backups?

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Software Raid 1 - Rather Slow During Raid 1 Recovery

May 20, 2009

I have a new server and it is rather slow during raid 1 recovery after system installed

CPU: Intel Core2Duo E5200 Dual Core, 2.5Ghz, 2MB Cache, 800Mhz FSB
Memory: 4GB DDR RAM
Hard Disk 1: 500GB SATA-2 16MB Cache
Hard Disk 2: 500GB SATA-2 16MB Cache

root@server [~]# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid1]
md0 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
256896 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md1 : active raid1 sdb2[1] sda2[0]
2096384 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md2 : active raid1 sdb4[2] sda4[0]
480608448 blocks [2/1] [U_]
[=======>.............] recovery = 36.7% (176477376/480608448) finish=1437.6min speed=3445K/sec

the sync speed is just 3.4Mb/second and the total hours needs to be more than 40 hours

Also the server load is very high (nobody uses it)

root@server [~]# top
top - 07:00:14 up 16:55, 1 user, load average: 1.88, 1.41, 1.34
Tasks: 120 total, 1 running, 119 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie
Cpu(s): 0.0%us, 0.2%sy, 0.0%ni, 99.7%id, 0.0%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.2%si, 0.0%st
Mem: 4148632k total, 747768k used, 3400864k free, 17508k buffers
Swap: 5421928k total, 0k used, 5421928k free, 569252k cached

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RAID 5 Vs RAID 10 In Shared Hosting Server

Oct 22, 2009

I am in the process of restructuring the infrastructure on our servers. I am thinking of using either RAID 5 (1 hot spare) vs RAID 10 as my 1U server has 4 HDD tray.

RAID 5 would have better capacity but RAID 10 has better overall performance. Which one do you guys go for a shared hosting server?

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Turn Non Raid Into Raid On Live Server

Dec 23, 2008

Is it possible to turn a non raided setup into Linux software raid, while it is live, and if it's the OS drive? Can you even software raid the OS drive remotely? I've been thinking about doing it for the redundancy (and possible slight performance boost for reads, but doing it more for redundancy). I'm using CentOS.

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Read Raid-disk On Non-raid System

May 22, 2008

I want to take some data from a raid-disk (taken from a raid-1 sstem). Put it into a new system already, but this system doesn't have any raid.

When viewing "fdisk -l", it said /dev/sdb doesn't contain valid partition. Is there anyway I can mount it now? I am on CentOS 4 box

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Sizing OpenVZ And Virtuozzo For Linux Physical Servers - Guidelines?

Sep 24, 2007


Are there any calculators, white papers, or other guidelines that provide guidance for sizing a physical server to be used for openvz or Virtuozzo for Linux?

i.e. if you want to run x VPS nodes totaling y disk space needing z number of processes, etc. you will need n CPUs of at least ____ Ghz with ____ RAM, and ____ hard drive space of which ________ should be reserved for the operating system and openvz system software

Also for openvz or Virtuozzo for Linux, which RAID provides the fastest performance without trading off too much for hard drive reliability?

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Windows: 2GB Physical Memory - 1.2GB Used - 1.1GB Page File Usage : Normal

Mar 22, 2007

I have a Windows 2003 server with 2GB ram running IIS and SQL 2005 express. I noticed that the server only uses around 1.2GB of its physical memory (been a few days) while page file usage seems high at 1.1GB.

SQL server has been allocated a maximum 1GB of memory while IIS has no limitations on memory usage.

Server doesn't really show any slowness at this point (not a lot of traffic). But to my understanding other than the proccesses that always use some virtual memory (around 400mb usually), page file should be only used when there is insufficient physical memory? So is there something wrong with my memory usage, 1.1GB on page file while there are still almost 50% available physical ram?

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