Onboard Raid 1 (Read Only After Testing)

Oct 27, 2009

I have a server with 2 hard drives.

1. I configured the onboard Raid 1, both as Volume0

I installed CentOS successfully. So I tested the RAID to see if the mirror really works

2. I took out hddA and boot hddB as single drive. it work!

3. Then I took out hddB and boot hddA as single drive. it work!

4. Then I plug back hddA & hddB back together & boot it up

It gives me many error screen, I had to login as repair screen with root password. It says everything is read-only. So I try to remount but it fails

#e2fsck -y /dev/sda1
#mount -t ext2 -o rw,remount /dev/sda1 /
#mount -n -o remount ext2 /dev/sda1 /
#mount -o remount,rw /

None above works. I wonder if I am not suppose to do that way the first place?

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Read Raid-disk On Non-raid System

May 22, 2008

I want to take some data from a raid-disk (taken from a raid-1 sstem). Put it into a new system already, but this system doesn't have any raid.

When viewing "fdisk -l", it said /dev/sdb doesn't contain valid partition. Is there anyway I can mount it now? I am on CentOS 4 box

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A Few Mobos, But No Onboard Video In 1U

Mar 29, 2008

We came across a few newer motherboards for a real good price, however they do not have onboard video or a NIC that would be recognized by the linux kernel.

We want to use 1U due to space costs and we have a riser card, but we need both a video card and a network card with these motherboards.

I was looking as found that you can buy an external IOGear video card (usb), but it states mostly it's used as a secondary display so I'm not quite sure if that would work as the primary.

I'm just curious, has anyone ever run into this before and what would you do?

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400GB Hard Disk Drives In RAID 0, RAID 5 And RAID 10 Arrays: Performance Analysis

Mar 7, 2007


Today we are going to conduct a detailed study of RAIDability of contemporary 400GB hard drives on a new level. We will take two "professional" drives from Seagate and Western Digital and four ordinary "desktop" drives for our investigation. The detailed performance analysis and some useful hints on building RAID arrays are in our new detailed article.


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Hardware RAID: Is Motherboard RAID As Good As A Dedicated PCI-E Card

Mar 24, 2008

Is Motherboard RAID as good as a dedicated PCI-E card? I am guessing a dedicated card is the best option, though costs more.

We are looking at buying a barebones server from Supermicro. It features an onboard RAID controller which supports RAID 0, 1, 5 & 10 - but for some strange reason it will only support RAID 5 if you use Windows. Here is a link to the page detailing the RAID features.


We are going to be running Linux, CentOS 5.1, so we will only have the choice of RAID 0, 1 or 10. This isn't an issue, as having RAID 10 on 4x SAS (15k) drives will be fine for speed and stability. What is an issue is would this RAID controller be as fast or reliable compared to a dedicated PCI-E card? If it can only use RAID 5 in windows, does that suggest this controller is too reliant on software? It would be a nightmare to suffer downtime and data loss because the controller couldn't hack it during a drive failure, or one day it decided to bugger up the array when rebooting.

So that leads me to looking at this card, this looks very good for what we need. Are adaptec a reliable brand? I've seen it advertised for 200, which is a good price.


This card features RAID 5 and 6, would RAID 6 be better than RAID 10 for redundancy, or is it too slow to bother with? Also it seems to have a battery module available for it, what does this achieve? Cos surely if the power dies the hard drives and motherboard can't run off this little battery, or does it just help the controller stay alive long enough with some hard drive information in its memory if the power goes out during a rebuild?

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Any Experiences With Software-Raid 5 Vs Hardware-Raid 5? (e.g. Hetzner EQ9)

Sep 17, 2009

I could try the Software-RAID 5 of the EQ9 Server of Hetzner.

Does anyone here has experiences, how fast a hardware raid 5 compared against the software-Raid 5 is?

The i7-975 should have enough power to compute the redundnacy on the fly, so there would be a minimal impact on performance. But I have no idea.

I want to run the server under ubuntu 8.04 LTS x64.

On it a vitualisation like VMware the IO-Load could get really high.

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Whats The Best For Server With SATA Raid 1 And SCSI Raid 10

Jan 14, 2008

So I've just got a server with 2xSATA raid 1 (OS, cpanel and everything in here) and 4xSCSI raid 10 (clean).

Which one do you guys think will give the best performance:

1. Move mysql only to 4xSCSI raid 10
2. Move mysql and home folder to 4xSCSI raid 10

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How To Setup Software RAID-10 On Linux With /boot On RAID-1

Jul 8, 2007

I am in a somewhat complicated situation... I wanted to order a custom server with hardware 3Ware RAID controller but after over a month of waiting I was told the HW RAID controller, as well as any other 3Ware controller they tried, does not work with the motherboard used in the server from Fujitsu-Siemens and that they simply got a reply from FS that the controller is not certified to work with their motherboard.

So although I'd prefer a HW raid, I am forced to either choose a different webhost or setup a software RAID. The problem is, I haven't done that before and am somewhat moderately...scared

I have read a lot of the info about SW RAID on Linux that I could find through Google but there are some questions unanswered still. So I thought that perhaps some of the more knowledgeable WHT members could help me with this problem...

The server specs will be:

Core2Duo E6600 (2.4Ghz), 2GB RAM, 6-8x* 250GB SATA II HDDs, CentOS 4.4 or SuSe, DirectAdmin

* I prefer 8 HDDs (or actually 9) over 6 but I am not sure if their server chassis can hold that many HDDs, I am awaiting answer from them. They don't have any other drives beside the 250GB ones so I am limited to those.

The preferred SW RAID setup is to have everything in RAID 10, except for the /boot partition which has to be on RAID-1 or no RAID I believe, plus one drive as hot spare (that would be the 9th drive). I am quite sure they will not do the setup for me but will give me access to KVM over IP and a Linux image preinstalled on the first HDD so that I'll have a functional system that needs to be upgraded to RAID-10.

How do I do that? The big problem I see is that LILO or GRUB can't boot from a software RAID-5/10 so I will have to mount the /boot partition elsewhere. It's probably terribly simple...if you have done it before which I have not. I have read some articles on how to setup a RAID-5/10 with mdadm (e.g. [url] ) but they usually do not talk about how to setup the boot partition. Should it be setup as a small sized (100-200MB) RAID-1 partition spread over all of the drives in the otherwise RAID-10 array?

What about swap? Should I create a 4-8GB (I plan to upgrade the server RAM to 4GB in near future) RAID-1 swap partition on each of the disks or swap to a file on the main RAID-10 partitions. The second sounds simpler but what about performance? Is swapping to a file on RAID-10 array a bad idea, performance wise?

Is it possible to grow a RAID-10 array in a way similar to growing a RAID-5 array with mdadm (using two extra drives instead of one of course)? mdadm doesn't actually even mention RAID-10 despite it does support it without having to create RAID-0 on top of RAID-1 pairs if the support is in kernel, from what I know.

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Worth Having RAID 1 If Raid Arrays Break

Feb 25, 2009

How often do RAID arrays break? Is it worth having RAID if a servers hard drive goes down? I was thinking it may just be a better option to just have a backup drive mounted to my system and in the even of a system failure just pop in a new hard drive, reload the OS, and then reload all my backups?

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Software Raid 1 - Rather Slow During Raid 1 Recovery

May 20, 2009

I have a new server and it is rather slow during raid 1 recovery after system installed

CPU: Intel Core2Duo E5200 Dual Core, 2.5Ghz, 2MB Cache, 800Mhz FSB
Memory: 4GB DDR RAM
Hard Disk 1: 500GB SATA-2 16MB Cache
Hard Disk 2: 500GB SATA-2 16MB Cache

root@server [~]# cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : [raid1]
md0 : active raid1 sdb1[1] sda1[0]
256896 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md1 : active raid1 sdb2[1] sda2[0]
2096384 blocks [2/2] [UU]

md2 : active raid1 sdb4[2] sda4[0]
480608448 blocks [2/1] [U_]
[=======>.............] recovery = 36.7% (176477376/480608448) finish=1437.6min speed=3445K/sec

the sync speed is just 3.4Mb/second and the total hours needs to be more than 40 hours

Also the server load is very high (nobody uses it)

root@server [~]# top
top - 07:00:14 up 16:55, 1 user, load average: 1.88, 1.41, 1.34
Tasks: 120 total, 1 running, 119 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie
Cpu(s): 0.0%us, 0.2%sy, 0.0%ni, 99.7%id, 0.0%wa, 0.0%hi, 0.2%si, 0.0%st
Mem: 4148632k total, 747768k used, 3400864k free, 17508k buffers
Swap: 5421928k total, 0k used, 5421928k free, 569252k cached

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RAID 5 Vs RAID 10 In Shared Hosting Server

Oct 22, 2009

I am in the process of restructuring the infrastructure on our servers. I am thinking of using either RAID 5 (1 hot spare) vs RAID 10 as my 1U server has 4 HDD tray.

RAID 5 would have better capacity but RAID 10 has better overall performance. Which one do you guys go for a shared hosting server?

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Turn Non Raid Into Raid On Live Server

Dec 23, 2008

Is it possible to turn a non raided setup into Linux software raid, while it is live, and if it's the OS drive? Can you even software raid the OS drive remotely? I've been thinking about doing it for the redundancy (and possible slight performance boost for reads, but doing it more for redundancy). I'm using CentOS.

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3ware RAID Or Software RAID

Mar 24, 2009

MY server configure our drives with RAID-1.

How can I check it my server configure with 3ware or software raid ?

Also please advise me how can I monitor raid configuration that my raid is working fine or no ?

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RAID Or Not To RAID: Trying To Decide On A New Server

Jul 11, 2008

I've been talking to the Planet about trading in my four and a half year old "SuperCeleron" (from the old ServerMatrix days) Celeron 2.4 GHz system for something new. As part of their current promotions, I've configured a system that looks decent:

Xeon 3040, 1 gig of RAM, 2x250GB hard disks, RHEL 5, cPanel+Fantastico, and 10 ips for $162.

Not too bad. I could bump up the ram to 2 gb for, I think, $12 more, which I'm thinking about and wouldn't mind some thoughts on. But, the thing that has me really confused is RAID. I like the idea of doing a RAID 1 setup with those two hard disks. But, the Planet wants $40/month for a RAID controller to do it. I really don't want to go over $200 a month!

Any thoughts on alternative redundancy strategies that might avoid that cost? Software RAID does not seem to be offered by the Planet, unless I can figure out how to do it after installation (is that possible?) Better ideas in general on the server?

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Raid 1 SCSI Or Raid 10 SATA 10k

May 23, 2007

Just curious what your thoughts are on performance:

2 SCSI Drives 10k w/RAID 1


4 SATA 10k w/RAID 10

Prices are not too different with 4 drives just being a tad more.

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Software Raid Vs. Hardware Raid

Jun 5, 2007

how well software raid can perform and how it compares to hardware raid. How does software raid actually work and is it worth it?

How should I look at be setting up software raid if I was going to? Would you recommend just to use hardware raid instead?

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RAID 10 Or RAID 5 With Online Backup

Dec 10, 2007

Which do you guys recommend of the following?

4x 73GB 15,000rpm SAS drives in a RAID 10


4x 73GB 15,000rpm SAS drives in a RAID 5 w/ online backup

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Migration Testing

Apr 21, 2009

I am migrating my website to Hostgator, and before I change the DNS entries, I want to make sure that everything displays properly. To do this, I have added an entry into my /etc/hosts file pointing the domain to the new host. If I then ping the domain, the reply comes from the correct IP address. However, if I try to view the website, it is still served by the old host.

I thought it might be a caching issue, but I have checked with wireshark and using curl, and it is definitely connecting to the new IP address, but the server that is returning the pages is still the old one. I've contacted hostgator support, but when they make the changes to their hosts file, it loads correctly. Is this a local problem (my system), or something with their server configuration?

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Testing New Webserver

Nov 4, 2009

I am looking for some decent tools to test a web server that can run large scale web sites running Windows and Linux.

I am more interested in the underlying hardware at this point to see if the servers them selves are capable of withstanding the loads without choking.

I am most interested in Disk testing and Network testing but the server but of course the server as a whole is important to since cpu and memory bottle neck can affect everything.

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VPS For Software Testing

Apr 19, 2009

I am currently developing a piece of software that will act as an all purpose control panel for a specific niche. I have coded the vast majority of the control panel already, and want to purchase a cheap (under $25/mo) VPS to test the installation and performance of the control panel.

As a result of me testing various configurations the main feature I am looking for is free (or very cheap) OS reloads.

I want to be working under a CentOS environment, and have a decent amount of CPU that I can use. Disk space and bandwidth are really not an issue, as I am simply testing using this VPS to test the software I am developing.

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Testing Scripts

May 17, 2009

I am using Winxp and would like an application to test my cgi scripts.

Is there anything out there to do this?

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Reboot Testing

Mar 11, 2008

for testing reboots? Basically, the goal is to avoid having a reboot fail leading to support or reinstall costs.

Right now, I'm using qemu -snapshot /dev/hda, but that obviously has limitations.

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Testing Mod_Evasive

Apr 2, 2007

I have 2 questions here.

1. I have installed mod_evasive version 1.10.1 on a Cent OS 4.4 server.

I'm using the test.pl script that comes with mod_evasive to test the configuration and when running the script from the same server mod_Evasive is installed. The mod_evasive is able to detect the intrusion and block the IP of the server.

If I use the same test.pl script from an external server the requests come in and are viewable in the access log but mod_evasive doesnt block the IP of the external server. Probably is not blocing the ip of the external server because of latency.

Is there a way to modify the test.pl script to make it more agressive and get results when testing from an external server?

Here I'm pasting the code of the test.pl script:


# test.pl: small script to test mod_dosevasive's effectiveness

use IO::Socket;
use strict;

for(0..100) {
my($SOCKET) = new IO::Socket::INET( Proto => "tcp",
PeerAddr=> "test.domain.tld:80");
if (! defined $SOCKET) { die $!; }
print $SOCKET "GET /?$_ HTTP/1.0

$response = <$SOCKET>;
print $response;

2. Also, I have sendmail installed and on the mod_evasive config I have email address specified on DOSEmailNotify. When testing from the internal server with the test.pl script the server is able to block the ip, put in the hash table but it never sends an email to my email address.

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Mod Evasive Testing

Mar 20, 2007

I just installed Mod Evasive and I want to fully test it but dont know how. I was planning to use Http Traffic Generator from NsaSoft but I'm afraid the ISP will block my IP space after testing the web site.

What will be the best tool and way to test this module?

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Load Testing

Oct 8, 2007

We have been doing some research on some colocation facilities lately and a question came up about load testing. I'm wondering what the standard is in regards to load testing a colocation facility.

Are they full load tests? How often are they done? How long are those tests done for?

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Testing A Certificate

Jun 1, 2007

I've installed a certificate in my server that's certified by a CA, but I want to see what happens when that CA is no longer listed as trusted. In Internet Explorer I click Advanced and de-select "Server Authentication" for my CA. When I go to my site, though, I don't see the usual untrusted warning come up. How do you test this?

what's the difference between the certification authority and publisher sections in Internet Explorer?

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4 15K SAS RAID 10 Vs. 8 7.2K SATAII RAID 10

Nov 3, 2009

Are there any significant difference between 4 15K SAS HD in RAID 10 versus 8 7.2K SATAII HD in RAID 10? I have the same question for 2 15K SAS HD in RAID 1 versus 4 7.2K SATAII HD in RAID 10.

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2 X SSD Raid 1 Or 4 X SAS Raid 10 For Mysql

Apr 19, 2009

I'm currently using 4 x 15K SAS raid 10 for a mysql server for a pretty busy forum, it has no I/O problem.

Now i'm going to migrate to a new server that i'm building soon, I have choice of:

2 x Intel X25-E SSD RAID 1


4 x 15K Fujitsu SAS RAID 10

will be using Adaptec 2405 RAID card.

The OS will be installed on a seperate hard drive.

If I go with the SAS setup, will be about $200 cheaper.

Which one do you think is better for Mysql performance?

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Raid 5 Vs Raid 10 (4 Drives)

May 10, 2009

I have room for 4 more hard drives on my home server. My original goal was to go raid 10 but I've been thinking, raid 5 can support 4 drives and give more capacity. Which one would have better performance as software (md) raid? I'm thinking raid 10 might actually have bad performance as software raid, vs hardware, compared to raid 5. Would raid 5 with 4 drives be better for my case?

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Would You Choose RAID 5 Or RAID 10

Mar 16, 2008

We are looking to build our first server, and collocate it. It will be a higher investment than just renting the server, but will be worth it in the long term, and we have already decided we are going to support the hosting business for a minimum of 3 years - so we might as well invest in a server from the outset to benefit from lower data center charges and higher redundancy and performance.

We are currently looking at Supermicro for servers as they offer 1U barebones systems with dual hotswappable psus and upto 4 hotswappable drives. This would be ideal for redundancy, and also for taking advantage of the speed and redundancy that a RAID 10 array would give you. These two factors combined are very appealing as it would reduce the possibilities of downtime and data loss. Obviously we will be backing up daily, but its good for piece of mind to know that you could potentially blow a PSU and 2 hard drives, and your server will still be up long enough for a data centre technician to replace the parts.

Now then, my business partner and I are currently deciding what the best all round hard drive configuration would be. He has decided that we should opt for SAS instead of SATA to have lower latency seek times, which would give us better performance. I agree, though this does increase costs considerably.

He is then arguing that we use RAID 5 on cost grounds. He says we should only use 3 of the slots to begin with, save money on one drive by not having a spare, and hope we don't have a drive failure - which sods law will happen. I'm not happy us cutting corners to save money, because if we gamble and lose, that's a hell of a mess we have ourselves in, and will cost us a load more time, reputation and data center charges to get ourselves out of it.

I say we might as well go for RAID 10 for that extra performance, and redundancy, you can potentially lose 2 drives so long as they aren't from the same mirrored pair. With RAID 5 you can only lose a drive, it takes longer to rebuild onto a spare, and during rebuild the performance takes a hit. Also RAID 10 is much faster than RAID 5, and at the expense of the cost of a drive.

Now the question we should be asking is... would a SATA2 RAID 10 array provide better performance than a SAS RAID 5 array?

So I think the choice we have to make is either go for RAID 5 and run with a hot spare, and stock a cold spare, or go with RAID 10 and stock 2 cold spares.

We are considering going with Seagate drives because they are high performance and have 5 year warranties. I have had to RMA two Western Digital drives already in the past 12 months, a raptor and a mybook, both deaths invoked data loss.

The server is going to be a linux web, email, dns and mysql box. It will likely feature a single dual/quad core processor, and 4-8GB of unbuffered ddr2 ram.

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Build RAID 0 Or Raid 5

Aug 23, 2007

I'm trying to build a physical raid 0/5 that can plug in to any computer which has SCSI behind it.

What are components you recommend (case, cpu, motherboard, SATA ...)

This is first time raid builder so i don't really need an expensive components.

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