Kernel Drives

Aug 4, 2009

What is the best way to find out which filesystems and harddrive drivers you can remove? Obviously, i need ext2,3 but how do you find which HD you only need?

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Do Hosts Use Enterprise Drives Or Desktop Drives

Nov 5, 2009

i want to know if there is a difference between enterprise drives and desktop drives and which ones hosts use

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Dell Drives In A RAID Array With Non-Dell Drives

Sep 14, 2009

I have a couple of Dell 1950s and in one of them, I have 2x Seagate 15K.5s that I purchased through Dell and I also have a spare sitting in my rack in case one goes bad, also from Dell.

I was going to be repurposing one of my other 1950s and was going to get two more 15K.5s for it, but wasn't planning on getting them through Dell (rip off?). This way, could still keep the same spare drive around in case a drive went bad in that system as well.

When I was talking to my Dell rep recently when purchasing another system, their hardware tech said you can't use non-Dell drives with Dell drives in the same RAID array because of the different firmware between them.

Anyone know if it is true? Anyone have any experience with using drives from Dell in conjunction with the same model drives from a third party retailer?

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[kernel: Kernel BUG At Mm/rmap.c:479] Any Idea What This Is?

Mar 29, 2007

we have one box in that has been down so many times this month that we were forced to remove links to siteuptime where we were once so proud of having a 99.7% uptime for 3 years in theplanet.

syslog shows that just before crashing, these entries were made:

kernel: kernel BUG at mm/rmap.c:479
kernel: invalid operand:0000 [#1]

dmesg also shows this:

Brought up 2 CPUs
zapping low mappings.
checking if image is initramfs... it is
Freeing initrd memory: 482k freed
NET: Registered protocol family 16
PCI: PCI BIOS revision 2.10 entry at 0xf9f20, last bus=1
PCI: Using configuration type 1
mtrr: v2.0 (20020519)
mtrr: your CPUs had inconsistent fixed MTRR settings
mtrr: probably your BIOS does not setup all CPUs.
mtrr: corrected configuration.

i've googled these messages and they point to ram problems. claims to have done diagnostics on the box and that there were no problems reported.

they said this is a result of a sys configuration problem made by us.

any ideas?

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Kernel Headers For Virtuozzo Kernel

May 20, 2009

running centos/virtuozzo 2.6.18-028stab062.3

when i configure vmware it asks at one point for kernel header files. where would i find them to match the current kernel?

i asked at parallels forums but help there is very scarce. i checked openVZ repositories and they dont yet have headers for this version.

what are my options? i have one last windows machine left and want to run it in VMware.

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Centos + Kernel 2.6.9-34.0.2- How To Upgrade Kernel

Apr 29, 2007

Last year I ordered a new server with Centos 4.3 and it had the kernel kernel 2.6.9-34.0.2ELsmp installed. It runned fine and I didn't update any packages since then.

Today I started getting a problem where both mysqld and kswapd0 uses very high amounts of CPU, spiking up to 100% and my memory usage is at 99% all the time. The problem seems exactly the same as the one mentioned in this thread.

In that thread the exact same kernel is said to be insecure and to cause this problem. I also came across a centOS bug that reports this problem with high cpu, mem usage and mysql & kswapd0 consuming all resources.

In the linked thread the person solved the problem by upgrading to kernel 2.6.9-42 using rpms but others recommended a newer kernel or a custom compiled kernel for CentOS.

Apparently when they used yum it said 34.0.2 was the latest kernel.

What should I do to upgrade the kernel, which version should i upgrade to, and where do I get it from? I won't be able to compile a custom kernel and I've only installed basic rpm packages before.

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SSD Drives

Oct 5, 2009

Has anyone begun implementing SSD drives? We're thinking about using them as OS drives.

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Using 2TB Drives

Sep 30, 2009

I'm not sure they make sense yet, especially in bigger raid arrays...

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1.5TB Drives

Nov 4, 2009

I know there are a lot of experienced hardware guys on here, so I wanted some input on 1.5TB drives. Are they reliable enough to be used in non-mission critical storage servers? 99% of what we do is OEM (Dell) equipment, so I don't test raw hardware much these days.

I've read a lot of negative things about Seagate lately. Can anyone chime in with specific models they've had positive or negative experiences with from any vendor? Reading some reviews on the WD 1.5TB Caviar Black drives, there seems to be some weird issues with them going into a recovery cycle.

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WDC Drives, Caviars Vs Re

Oct 1, 2009

I was just wondering whats the real live experience or difference on using Western Digital Caviar series (green, blue or black) on a DC environment vs the RE which are suppose to be for enterprise business.

On the WDC website the caviar series are targeted under desktop disks not servers. But allot of servers and providers use them. If you have servers your suppose to use the RE series, I exclude raptors as I only want to compare medium performance disks here.

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Hard Drives For VPS

Apr 23, 2009

I'm building a couple of VPS host servers for a client.

Each server have to host 20 VPS and each server will be 4 cores with 32GB of ram. So CPU and ram should be just fine, my interrogatioon now is hard drives. The company owns the machines, but not the drives yet.

I searched a lot on your forums but found nothing relating on VPS. I'm basicly a DBA IRL, so I have experience in hardrives when it comes to databases, but it's completely different for VPS.

According to my boss, each VPS will run a LAMP solution (having a separeted DB cluster is out of question for some reason).

First, raid1 is indeed a must. There is room for 2x 3.5 drives. I might be able to change the backplane for 4x2.5, but i'm not sure...

I've came to several solutions:
2x SATA 7.2k => comes to about 140$
2x SATA 10k (velociraptor) => comes to about 500$
2x SAS 10k with PCIe controller => comes to about 850$
2x SAS 15k with PCIe controller=> comes to about 1000$

They need at least 300GB storage.

But my problem is that the servers do not have SAS onboard so I need a controller and in my case the cheapest solution is best.

But I'm not sure that SATA 7.2k will hold the charge of 20 complete VPS.

Does it worth it to go with SAS anyway or SATA should be just fine? With SATA better use plain old sata 7.2k or 10k drives?

That's a lot of text for not much: What is best for VPS: SATA 7.2k, SATA 10k or SAS 10k?

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What To Do With 6 Hard Drives

Mar 25, 2007

I am about to buy a Compaq server with 6 SCSI hard drives. In you opinion, what is the best RAID configuration with 6 HDs?

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RLX Blade Hard Drives?

Jan 7, 2008

Do the old RLX Blade servers use 'mini' hard drives? I can't find an answer anywhere. I seem to recall that they use smaller 2.5" drives. Is this the case?

And, if so, do they make "good" drives worthy of being in a server in that size? Are they essentially just a laptop drive?

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How To Mount And Use Multiple Drives

Jul 4, 2009

I must not even understand the basics of how mounting works in Linux.

Physical drive /dev/sda1 is mounted at /

I created a software RAID array (using mdadm) out of two other drives using mdadm, at /dev/md0, and mount it at /vol:

mount /dev/md0 /vol

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1 9.9G 2.2G 7.3G 23% /
/dev/md0 200G 470M 200G 1% /vol

Now I start creating files in /vol/*

Then I unmount /dev/md0

I still see the files at /vol/*. They seem to be on /dev/sda1.

So how do I use the RAID array at /dev/md0 that I tried to mount at /vol?

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Listing Drives And Mounting Them

Nov 8, 2009

My server has been formated it has two drives. I have my back up on the second drives.
What is the command I use to list the drives and how to mount the second drive.

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SSD Drives In A Server Setting

Oct 4, 2009

Does anyone have experience with SSD drives in a server environment? I've seen now a few offers with SSD (Intel) and wondering if the speed is noticeable?

Are they worth it? from what I have been reading is that they a superior in reliability, but have issues with limited write cycles.

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How To Mount And Use Multiple Drives

Jul 5, 2009

I must not even understand the basics of how mounting works in Linux.

Physical drive /dev/sda1 is mounted at /

I created a software RAID array (using mdadm) out of two other drives using mdadm, at /dev/md0, and mount it at /vol:

mount /dev/md0 /vol

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1 9.9G 2.2G 7.3G 23% /
/dev/md0 200G 470M 200G 1% /vol
Now I start creating files in /vol/*

Then I unmount /dev/md0

I still see the files at /vol/*. They seem to be on /dev/sda1.

So how do I use the RAID array at /dev/md0 that I tried to mount at /vol?

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250GB Or Larger Drives

Mar 24, 2009

Anybody know the best place to get a really cheap server with at least 250GB drives? I'm assuming most providers offer HDD's of that size on relatively cheap systems now if we're just looking at SATA.

The machine doesn't need to be anything special, I don't need a ton of bandwidth.

Basically this will be an extra backup machine to pull backups from servers instead of my usual "pushing" of backup data.

So to clarify, I'm looking for a simple machine pretty much anywhere with some drive space! VPS just won't cut it because the drivespace they provide is too expensive (yes, I understand they have nice drive setups though).

RAID etc is not needed, I'm not running anything mission critical but would like to have more locations in place to hold backups for me. WHT worries me alot

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Offshore 10Krpm Drives

Oct 15, 2009

I can't find providers with 10Krpm HDs+ offshore and they have to have good support. Also I need atleast 2Tb over 100Mbit.

The reason why I need it to be offshore is because my client wants to have a subtitles sites and I'm not exactly sure if its legal or not in america and UK. Also netherlands or germany is preffered I looked at swiftnoc but not sure if they have 10krpm hard drives.

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Raid 1 Vs Two Physical Drives

Nov 1, 2009

I have number of question relevant to dedi. severs. I dont know to post them seperately or in single thread , sorry to mod for my negligence.

raid 1
If I have two drives ,and take daily backup on second drive

how much average small websites can hold a single machine=
quad xeon 2.3 , 4gb ram, 1 tb drive what you say?

how many websites you ever hosted on single machine?

is it wise to host large number of website on single powerful machine with external backup, or go for number of small dedis.

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Solid State Drives

Jun 15, 2008

I'm sure by now we have all noticed the Liquid Web ads for solid state drives by now. These offerings would make for incredible database servers, among other things.My questions is:

How many of you are going to run out and get a solution like this, from liquidweb or anyone else? Why or why not?

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Linux Hard Drives

Jan 12, 2008

On my centos webserver I currently am using a 250gb ide drive.

I just bought 2 Western Digital Raptor WD1500ADFD 150GB 10,000 RPM 16MB hard drives.

And now I am wondering what kind of setup I should have?

Should I have the 250gb hd as a backup drive now and have the two raptors in a raid 0 array.

What would be the best configuration?

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Samsung Spinpoint F1 Drives

Apr 19, 2008

I am thinking of purchasing Samsung Spinpoint F1 drives, either the 750 GB or 1000 GB one. The purpose would be to put them on a large RAID array (e.g. 14 drives in RAID 10/RAID 50). The price and performance looks good. However, I have read many mixed reviews about the drives. Does anybody has any experience with the drive? Again, this will not be used on a desktop environment, but a server environment. OS would be Win2K3 or CentOS.

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Anyone Used 1TB 32mb Sata2 Drives

Feb 26, 2008

Anyone used 1TB 32mb sata2 drives? Hows there performance and do they overheat?

For our NAS/backup server shall we go ahead with 1TB drives or take 500gig/750gig drives?

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Where/How To Duplicate Hard Drives

Jul 3, 2007

I am in a little bit of trouble I got a couple (5) of 750GB hdds that I need backed up to another couple (5?) of 750GB hdds so I can save the data storage on them. They are in a Linux box with a LVM setup I also have a RAID ware card on it but not using any RAID # on them. I decided after finding out what I could do with it to go to Windows 2003 on the server and installing RAID5/6 on it.

It seems that I will have to give up all my data and have everything wiped off from the hard drives this is very sad for me but I still have a chance to save the data on them. So I am thinking of copying them to another bunch of hard drives and then re-add it once the system is in place.

I was looking at this

But thats clearly too expensive as I just need to back up 5 hard drives (750GB/each) and just need to do it one time. Anyone have any suggestions to this or how should I go about doing it. It doesnt have to be right away but its good to know my options.

Is there any place where they might to do this kind of stuff they let you rent their machine for a couple of hours for a fee so you can back up your data? The server is a COLO and the hardware is mine so I have every right to take it off and back it up with no problem from the datacenter.

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Server With 2 Hard Drives

Sep 11, 2007

am getting new server with 2 (73GB) hard drives i need to know the following:

1.I need to put /home in one hard drive 73GB and the other partitions like /boot, /tmp,/usr and /var on the other drive

where should i put /home? on the primary or or secondary drive?is there any effect on the speed?

2. Am used to servers with 1 drive. is there any difference when it comes to security aplications such as APF,BFD,mod security and other aplicatuions settings?

3. in general should i take the same actions when handling a server with 1 drive and server with 2 drives?

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Seagate OEM Drives... SUN Firmware

Jun 29, 2007

So I bought 4 little simple SCSI drives to build up an older dual p3 server... and they worked great.

Later I bought 4 more and was going to build up an identical machine... but I ended up sitting on it for a few months.

Now that I've gone back to it... I've discovered that the more recent 4 drives have a SUN firmware on them... and CentOS doesn't know how to install on them.


I've managed to download SeaTools Linux CLI and other tools for downloading (uploading) a firmware file to the drives.

However, I can't figure out a way to copy the existing flash on the working drives to a file, or I can't find a firmware update for the drives

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Two Drives On My RAID 5 Failed

Apr 30, 2007

I have a dell POWER VAULT 725N utilizing a 4 HDD RAID 5 setup.

Server has died and bios error message shows that 2 hard drives had failed. I can not boot to windows.

Data is very crucial, what are my options for data recovery?

I really hope I can recover the data, I doubt that two HDD actually failed at the same time without giving any warnings. I hope its the raid controller.

Would like to hear pointers from the community on how to recover important data from the RAID.

Are there any companies/software that would help in this assuming it is a hdd failure and not a controller issue?

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1 Domain To Use 2 Hard Drives

May 31, 2007

i just got another HDD on my server, but i want to use 1 domain and use both hard drives for the 1 domain.

How do i set it up so that both hdd's can be used by the 1 using WHM but cant seem to do it.

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What Is The Difference NAS And Many Hard Drives Server

Mar 28, 2008

i feel the NAS are not very cheap,

it looks likely just a low-level server with many hhds,

but why people not buy a server and put many hhds on it?

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Low Power Server, 1U, 2 Hot Plug SAS Drives

May 27, 2008

I'm currently running Dell 1750s, 1850s, and 1950s in a colo facility. I am not happy with the 1850s and 1950s power consumption. My 1950s have a single quad core 5310, 2GB memory, dual 15k 73GB drives, dual power suppies and are running at about 1.9 amps with spikes up to 2.4 amps. My applications are disk bound and the servers typically run at a load of .1 to .2.

I'm looking for alternatives to the 1950 that use significantly less power. I need at least 2 Hot Plug SAS drives and would like to have it in 1U. I run 2GB of memory. Dual power supplies would be nice, but are not absolutely necessary. I'd rather not go with a non-hot plug solution, but may have to consider it. I will probably buy 10-15 servers soon and would like them to be identical. I'd prefer buying a name-brand.

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